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Europen In India

The Europeans and Indians commercial contact has a lengthy history. But it was at the end of fifteenth century, that India began to be seen as an appealing destination by the Europeans. Initially these trading Europeans only had commercial interests but by passage of time they indulged in the governmental affairs. Finally they found colonies here, which also led to rivalry among European powers, originally for commercial earnings and afterwards for political benefits.

You will find five European companies which created their trading centers at various locations in coastal India. Let us look to the facts


Vasco Da Gama discovered the Cape of Good Hope route from Europe to India and reached Calicut in 1498. Originally, Cochin was the capital of Portuguese in India, but afterwards Goa replaced it.

Francisco de Almeida was governor of Portuguese in India. He is blamed for introduction of coverage of Blue Water.

Alfonso d’ Albuquerque became the second governor of Portuguese in India at 1509. He introduced policy of Imperialism. In 1510, he seized Goa in the ruler of Bijapur. Ever since that time, Goa became the capital of Portuguese settlements in India. Albuquerque built a fort in Cochin. In addition, he encouraged the people of his country to marry Indian girls. He also captured Malacca and Ceylon.

Portuguese electricity started to decrease by end of 16th century. In 1631, Hugli was missing to Mughal commendable of Shahjahan. In 1661, Bombay was given in dowry to Charles II of England from the then Portuguese king upon his own sisters marriage to English royal.

Portuguese proved later left with just Goa, Diu and Daman which they retained till 1961. In 1739, Marathas captured Bassein.


The Dutch East India Company was set in 1602.. They set up settlements at Masulipattanam, Pulicat, Surat, Karaikal, Nagapattinam, Chinsura, Kasimbazar, Baranagore, Patna, Balasore and Cochin.

From the 17th century, they defeated Portuguese and replaced Portuguese since the most dominant power in European commerce from the East, including India. Pulicat was their principal centre, after it was replaced by Nagapattinam.

After midst of 17th century, English started to emerge as historic power. Anglo-Dutch competition lasted for seven years and contributed to defeat Dutch in 1759 at the Battle of Bedard.


Withe the arrival of Europeans in India, the English did not need to be left behind. The English East India Company was set in 1600. Captain William Hawkins arrived at the royal court of Jahangir to seek consent to start factory at Surat. In 1612 Jahangir issued a Farman allowing the set up of factory at Surat.

Sir Thomas Roe came in India as ambassador of James I to Jahangir’s court in 1615 to seek permission for establishment of trading centres in various areas of the country. From 1619, factories at Agra, Allahabad, Baroda and Broach were set up. The company acquired Bombay out of Charles II on lease.

Francis Day based Madras in 1639 in which Fort St.George was assembled. In 1690, Job Charnock launched a mill at Sutanati. Zamindari of 3 villages, Sutanati, Kalikata and Gobindpur has been obtained by English in 1698. Later it evolved into the town of Calcutta, where Fort William was constructed. The English East India Company continued its presence till 1858.


With the coming of Europeans in India, the Netherlands also participate in trading actions. The danish settlement in Tranquebar(now Called Tharangambadi in TN) in 1620. Another significant Denmark payoff in India was Serampore in Bengal, which served as their headquarter in India. The English bought all their settlements in India in 1845.


First mill was established at Surat by Francois Martin at 1668. In 1673, Pondicherry was founded by Francois Martin, that he was the first governor of the French headquarters in India. Other french factories in India were in Mahe, Karaikal and Chandranagore

Anglo-French Conflict (Carnatic Wars)

Of the 3 Carnatic wars, the second war was trigger by domestic explanations. First and Third warfare was influenced by events in Europe.

First Carnatic war (1746-1748)

In 1740, with break from War of Succession in Europe, England and France became rivals. The French wrought Madras. They conquered the army of Carnatic Nawab in St.. Thomas struggle under French governor Dupleix. After the Austrian Succession War was reasone withe Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle at 1748, the first anglo-french war also came to a conclusion.

SecondĀ  Carnatic War (1749-1754)

The French Governor of Pondicherry, Dupleix tasked with Muzaffar Jung of Hyderabad and Chanda Sahib of Arcot, encouraging their claim to get throne. After initial gains by French, the English won a critical victory under Robert Clive. The 2nd Carnatic war concluded in Treaty of Pondicherry also known as Treaty of Godeheau(new French Governor who substituted Dupleix) in 1754.

Third CarnaticĀ  War (1758-1763)

The French troops under Count de Lally seized Fort St. David. The English dfeated them at Wandiwash at 1760. English destroyed and captured Pondicherry. When Seven Year warfare came to a conclusion in Europe by Treaty of Paris in 1763, the next Carnatic War also ended. The French were limit to Pondicherry, Karaikkal, Mahe and Yenam


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