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Medieval Indian History Indian History

Mughal Empire

Babur was the Creator of Mughal Empire. He was related to Timur out of his dad’s side along with Chengiz Khan into his mum’s side. His first name was Zahiruddin Muhammad. He defeated ibrahim lodhi from the first Battle of Panipat in 1526 and recognized Mughal rule in India.

Babur wrote his memoirs at Tuzuk-i-Baburi in Turki language, describing the flora and fauna of India.

He defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar at Battle of Khanua at 1527 near Agra. He then assumed the title of’Ghazi’. Babur also conquered the Afgans in conflict of Gogra in Bihar.

Humayun(1530-1540 AD and 1555-56 AD)

He was the biggest son of Babur and ascended the throne in 1530. He fight two battles against Sher Shah, the afgan pioneer in Chausa and Kannauj, where he was completely beat. Humayun subsequently escaped to Iran for following fifteen decades.

Sur Empire/ Interregenum(1540AD-1555AD)

The creator was Sher Shah. He ruled for five decades but arranged the administratin at a brillant manner. He started the system of local responsibility for local crimes. Land was measured and tax was collected to approximately 1/3rd ogf the create. He built Purana Qila in Delhi. He introduced new coins known as as’dams’ which remained in circulation til 1835.

Following Sher Shah, his successors dominated until Humayun invaded in 1555.

He also constructed the Mosoleum in Sasaram, one of the asterpieces of indian Architecture. In addition, he patronized heard guys such as Malik muhammad Jayasi that rote Padmavar beneath his reign.

Sher Shah built roads to strengthen communication, largely 4 major highways. From Lahore to Multan., from Jodhpur to Chittor, From Agra to Burhampur, and from Sonargaon to Sind.

Humayun conquered his missing empire back from Afghans. However he died in six months later falling from stairs of his library.

Akbar Khan (1556AD-1605 AD)

He is considered best monarchs of India. That the Afghans marched on delhi soon after he supposed throne beneath Hemu. At 2nd Battle of panipat, Hemu was conquered and Mughals won. For initial five decades, Bairam Khan merged the empire .

That the Rajput Policy of Akbar is lauded by several historians. He also married the daughter of Raja Bharmal, consequently maintining friendly relations with them. Even though the Ranas of Mewar stayed defiantto Muslim principle. Rana Pratap was conquered by the Mughal military in 1576.

Akbar proclaimed his own religion Din-i-Ilahi, contrary to the bigotry of orthodox Ulemas.On the other hand, the new religion didn’t became popular. He permitted his Hindu wives to worship their own gods. Akbar ordered the building ibadat khana(House of Worship) in his funds Fatehpur Sikri. He encouraged scholars of religions for consultations.

Under Akbar, the Land sales system was established called Zabi / BAndobast systemThis sytem was further enhanced by Raja Todarmal. The land revenue was fixed over the average yield of property assessed based on previous ten years records. The land was split into 4 classes: Polaj(annually cultivation), Parauti(cultivated after in two years), Chachar(once in 3-4 years), also Banjar( after in 5-6 years).

Jahangir(1605AD-1627 AD)

His name was Salim. Jahangir’s rule was full of rebellions. He’s famous for his rigorous administration. Captain William Hawkins of East India Company arrived at Jahangir’s court.. Sir Thomas Roe, a representative of King James I of England also came to his court seeking permission o establish trading interface at Surat. He had been granted permission after first resistance.

Sahajaan (1628AD-1658AD)

He faced revolts in Bundelkhand later usurping the throne following his dads daeath.

He promoted culture and art during his reign. That the Red Fort, Jama Masjid at Delhi were assemble under his rule.

Auragzeb (1658AD-1707AD)

He assumed the title of Almgir. In first ten years to his rule, he lead several military campaigns. The jats and Satnamis and Sikhs revolted during his reign. These revolts were a consequence of his harsh religious policy. He defeated the Shia Sultans of Bijapur, Golconda eliminatng that the Kutb Shahi dynasty(KSD). This removed the barrier between the Maraths along with also the mughasl and confrontations started. His deccan policy destroyed the treasury of the Mughal empire.

Following Auragzeb, the Mughal empire started to fall rapidly.

Later Mughals were not too powerful or influential. Nevertheless the Mughal empire lasted till the 1857 revolt.

By Admin

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