East India Company Rule In India
He British East India Company, That is also Known as”John Company”, was formed as a Joint- Stock Company Which was Launched as The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies, in 1600.
This was the time when other trading businesses, that were created by the Portuguese, Dutch, French, and Danish were active in the area.
British Business started functioning in India annually 1612 after they had been allowed the rights to set up a factory in Surat. Sir Thomas Roe who had been a representative diplomat of Queen Elizabeth 1st of England went into the court of Mughal emperor Jahangir to find consent.
Subsequently the proper British rule in India started in 1757, after Battle of Plassey, when the Nawab of Bengal surrendered his dominion to the British East India Company.
Approaches followed by British to expand their empire:
- By wars and conquests
- By Subsidiary Alliance system
- From annexation through adaptation of philosophy of lapse.
British Annexation of Bengal
The start of British governmental management sway is traced to the battle of Plassey in 1757. From the Battle English East India Company defeated Siraj-ud-Daulah who was the Nawab of Bengal. Bengal was quite fertile and has been considered the very richest provinces of India. Therefore, company rule was needed to secure their trading interests in the province. The organization secured valuable statements beneath the royal farman by Mughal Emperor in 1717. The farman allowed export and import liberty to British products in Bengal without paying the right to issue passes or’Dastaks’ for movement of such products. The business servants were allowed to trade but not below the farman.
Events Resulting in the establishment of business rule in Bengal:
Alivardi Khan (1740-1756) : He legalized his reception of farman from Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah ‘Rangeela’ after paying him 2 crore rupees. He had prevented the English and the French from strengthening factories at Calcutta and Chandranagore. Alivardi Khan was succeed by his grandson Sirajuddaula.
He captured the English factory at Kasimbazar. On 20th June at 1756, Fort William surrendered but Robert Clive managed to regain Calcutta.
Treaty of Alinagar: was signed on 2nd Jan 1757, in which Siraj conceded his requirements and British managed to capture Chandranagore that was occupied by French until now.
Battle of Plassey has been fought on 23 June at 1757 involving Sirajuddaula of Bengal and British firm forces. Owing to the conspiracy led by Mir Jafar, Nawab has been defeated.
Nawab Sirajuddalua was murdered by Mir Jafar, that had been the Mir Bakshi,Amichand, that had been a Sikh retailer, Manikchand, who was the officer in charge of Calcutta, Jagat Seth, who was the largest banker of Bengal and by Khadim Khan who commanded a massive part of Nawab’s forces.
Value of Battle of Plassey
The battle of Plassey has immense historical importance because it enabled for the conquest of entire Bengal and afterwards the whole of India.
It boosted the morale of the British company and gave them rich revenues helped them to organise a strong army for defence.
Mir Jafar (1757-60) became the Nawab of Bengal while offering 24 parganas into the company to collect earnings and completely free trade in Bengal.
Mir Qasim(1760-64) transferred the capital from Murshidabad into Munger. He had been was mad with the British to misusing the dastak(free obligation pass). Mir Qasim forrmed using Awadh ruler Shujauddaula and Mughal emperor Shah Alam II.
Battle of Buxar (1764)
Mir Qasim, Shujauddala and Shah Alam II were conquered by forces of Munro. It was the most crucial battle in Indian background and it created the British ardently in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. This win guaranteed British supremacy in Northern India where now they were rivals for the Afghans and the Marathas.
Mir Jafar was placed on the throne. Upon his death, Nizamuddaula, his son had been set on the throne and signed traety with British to disband their military and also to administer Bengal via a Deputy Subedar nominated from the business.
Robert Clive reasoned two different treaties of Allahabad with Shah Alam II and Shujauddaula.
In 1765, double Government started in Bengal. The company principle had Diwani and Nizamat rights from Nizamuddaula, Nawab of Bengal. But firm did not take over direct administration and revenue collection in Bengal. In 1772, Warren Hastings ended this double system of government.